An analysis of health hazards caused by the use of e cigarettes

E cigarette research

The need for an in-depth analysis of e-cigarettes is evident given their widespread use. In summary, evidence from animal models offers a biologic mechanism for, and human evidence is suggestive of, an association between maternal tobacco use during pregnancy with offspring smoking and nicotine dependence, but is insufficient to infer causation. Figure 3. Finally, Etter reported cotinine levels among experienced e-cigarette users similar to levels usually observed in conventional cigarette smokers. In addition, hippocampal function, which is critical for memory, was altered in adult mice by nicotine exposure during adolescence. The report — which can be accessed in full here — reviews over scientific studies and draws several conclusions on various health aspects that may be affected by the use of electronic cigarettes , also known as e-cigarettes. Further work would be useful to determine the natural course and history of e-cigarette use among smokers of conventional cigarettes, former smokers, and never smokers and to more accurately determine the nicotine addiction liability of e-cigarette use.

Food and Drug Administration FDA recommends that pregnant women seek medical approval before using NRTand the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends consideration of NRT only if a woman fails behavioral interventions to quit smoking conventional cigarettes and has discussed the potential harms and benefits of NRT with her physician.

Literature regarding harmful consequences of close contact with malfunctioning e-cigarette devices and ingestion of the nicotine-containing liquids e-liquids are also explored. The institute has recently awarded 20 research grants in this area in addition to its previously awarded e-cigarette studies; four of those grants were also supported by the FDA.

Glycidol is a probable carcinogen not previously identified in the vapor, and acrolein is a powerful irritant Sleiman et al. No safe level of prenatal nicotine exposure has been established England et al.

Increase the likelihood that former smokers will again become addicted to nicotine by using e-cigarettes, and will start using burned tobacco products again.

disadvantages of e-cigarettes

Therefore, plasma nicotine concentrations delivered while using e-cigarettes have the potential to harm the developing fetus. S Surgeon General and the U.

e cigarette vs cigarette

These two things make the safety of e-cigs unclear. The studymandated by Congress, is the most comprehensive analysis of existing research about e-cigarettes. For example, some e-cigarettes marketed as containing zero percent nicotine have been found to contain nicotine.

We summarize its findings below. These studies have shown that nicotine induces the production of various inflammatory mediators involved with atherosclerotic pathogenesis Lau and Baldusand that at the cellular level, nicotine induces C-reactive protein CRP expression in macrophages that contribute pro-inflammatory and pro-atherosclerotic effects Mao et al.

An analysis of health hazards caused by the use of e cigarettes

Although factors such as genetic comorbidity, innate propensity for risk taking, and social influences may underlie these findings Lindsay and Rainey ; Smith et al. Food and Drug Administration FDA recommends that pregnant women seek medical approval before using NRT , and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends consideration of NRT only if a woman fails behavioral interventions to quit smoking conventional cigarettes and has discussed the potential harms and benefits of NRT with her physician. In addition, a fourth study found that vaping was more effective at helping people stay off cigarettes for 1 year or longer than other quitting aids or giving up without aids. Plasticity refers to the current understanding that the brain continues to change throughout life, not only because of normal, maturational neural growth and development but also because of changes in environmental neurobiological exposures such as nicotine , injuries, behaviors, thinking, and emotions Mills and Tamnes However, it is important to note that e-cigarettes were less addictive than conventional cigarettes in this sample Etter and Eissenberg Bidirectional relationships between adolescent smoking and disruptive disorders e. Although much of the literature on nicotine addiction arises from studies of nicotine exposure among adults, and with combustible tobacco products see Table A3. The evidence on the harmful consequences of nicotine exposure in conventional cigarettes, including addiction, and other adverse effects, is particularly relevant to e-cigarettes. Furthermore, in in the United States, there were In humans, a dose—response relationship between cotinine the major nicotine metabolite and altered arousal patterns has been shown in preterm infants Richardson et al.

Further work would be useful to determine the natural course and history of e-cigarette use among smokers of conventional cigarettes, former smokers, and never smokers and to more accurately determine the nicotine addiction liability of e-cigarette use.

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Safety of electronic cigarettes