Forced and early marriage in upper
Forced marriage in ghana
In the context studied here, early marriage may induce stress as females newly navigate partnerships, new duties, childbearing and possibly violence. Further, the adverse consequences of early marriage are intergenerational. In the current study, we focus on the agency dimension, using an innovative measure of agency based on the locus of control described in more detail in the methods section. Alternatively, parents may hold the belief that by marrying their daughter at an early age, she will be protected from sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancies and the risk of sexually transmitted infections [ 6 , 7 ]. In Ghana ratified the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, including Article 21 regarding the prohibition of child marriage. The programme was first rolled out in ten districts in Northern Ghana three districts in Upper East region and seven in Northern region , and communities within these districts were targeted based on official poverty rankings established at district level. During its Universal Periodic Review , Ghana supported recommendations to strengthen policies aimed at ending harmful practices, including child marriage. More specifically, we examined the following research question: To what extent is child marriage associated with adverse outcomes, including general health, reproductive health, agency, social support, and stress?
InGhana signed a joint statement at the Human Rights Council calling for a resolution on child marriage. We first examined associations between child marriage and outcomes examined in the existing evidence base including general health, reproductive health and child mortality using our data to investigate whether these relationships also hold in this setting.
More specifically, we examined the following research question: To what extent is child marriage associated with adverse outcomes, including general health, reproductive health, agency, social support, and stress?
Methods Baseline data from on ongoing impact evaluation of a government-run cash transfer programme was used.
Other factors include social norms and the need to reinforce social ties and perceived protection. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The data that support the findings of this study are property of UNICEF Ghana and the Government of Ghana and restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available.
Informed by the evidence to date, we hypothesized that child marriage is associated with lower levels of general health and worse reproductive health outcomes, including higher likelihood of adolescence childbearing and increased child mortality.
Conclusions Child marriage is common in Northern Ghana and is associated with poor health, increased child mortality, and low agency among women in this sample of extremely poor households. Received Feb 14; Accepted Feb 8.
A better understanding of the dynamics around child marriage is important to motivate more action around reducing child marriage rates, particularly given that decreases have stalled in recent years, and to inform programming assisting child brides.
Child marriage statistics 2017
Further, given that poverty is a driver of child marriage [ 2 , 6 , 7 , 19 , 23 ], and poverty is strongly associated with stress and poor mental health, [ 24 — 26 ], early marriage, poverty and stress may be mutually reinforcing. Ghana has committed to eliminate child, early and forced marriage by in line with target 5. In addition, stress is both an important indicator of well-being in its own right [ 20 , 21 ] but also a hypothesized pathway through which poverty and adverse life events may contribute to adverse outcomes [ 22 ]. Negative health consequences of child marriage include poorer maternal and reproductive health, increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, intimate partner violence and maternal mortality [ 7 — 10 ]. How big of an issue is child marriage? Child marriage is also associated with adverse economic outcomes, including lower educational attainment, lower socioeconomic status, and higher rates of poverty [ 12 ]. Although child marriage can occur among males as well, the prevalence is much lower: only 2. Migration: Rural-urban migration of girls makes them vulnerable to city men who take advantage of their economic situation and marry them. Abstract Background Child marriage is a human rights violation disproportionately affecting girls in lower- and middle-income countries and has serious public health implications.
based on 66 review