Training includes two years of mentoring prior to independent supervision of inmates, where trainees establish an understanding of punitive policies, political influences, and public perception that serves as the foundation for the connection between the structure of the system and reform Pratt, Cressey, G.
VIJ President Nicholas Turner and John Wetzel, secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, described what they saw on the trip in an National Journal op-ed : Inmates live in rooms and sleep in beds, not on concrete or steel slabs with thin padding.
In response to the apparent triumphs of the sixties, mass imprisonment became a way of reimposing Jim Crow. Sykes, G. Table 2 illustrates this, showing a significant contrast between five states all from the South with exceptionally high prison rates that are also among the lowest in personal income per capita, and five states all from the North with exceptionally low incarceration rates that are also among the highest in personal income per capita.
Bulten, E. Inmate social system.
In Germany, up to a third of all criminal cases are diverted away from prosecution altogether requiring offenders to pay reparations, attend classes or do community service.
At the present time, American prison reform efforts face major challenges due to the changing political landscape, public perception of the penal system, and the continuing national recession.